41 VIETONE VITASOUND 1940 PERSPE Warner Brothers normal mono+sprocket hole control track used to switch on auditorium speakers and increase the volume during special sequences Paramou normal morm subaudible to shift thea the sound b HANNEL r use on mbined prints MULTIPLE FILM PANORAMIC PROCESS RAMA -1962 ple tives na ama amic era 5mm total horizontal angle of view 146 triple Cinerama prints may also be optically printed a single 65mm Ultra.Panavision squeezed negative (maximum angle of view reduced to 90°

In 194o, after over a decade of “pure” monophonic cinema, Warner Brothers Vitasound became the frst standardized multi-speaker system. Like the nisicldialogue switching system described above Vitasound was not a true multi-chanel system but rather a multi speaker one. it had, however two major differences from its foreru net. First, it emploved speaker surrounding the audience Sccond, instead of relying on a projectionist to switch the sound between the two tracks, Vitasound used a control Rack between the sprocket holes of the flmstrip to tum these suround speakers on and off, a simiar method would be used by mul-channel systems of the 1950s tasound refects Becks stereophonic model in that the surround speakers were uscd to heighten the spectacle of film-all dialogue was kept tied to the sereen, and the surround speakers were only engaged for loud portions of the film where the music and etfects could spread out into the theater. The irst true multi-channel sound ilm, with unique audio chat nels feeding different speakers, came not long after Vitasound’s debu with Walt Disney’s Fantasia (0949). Fantasid’s sound system, developed by RCA and Walt Disney Studios and dubbed “Fantasound,” involved Iwo technical advainces over Vitasound. ” For one, not only did it spread hree sneakers horizontallv hehind the screen to allow sound to come